Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease as it affects the immune system of the body by destroying the beta cells that help in insulin release. The destruction of insulin cells negatively impacts the production of insulin in the body. Since glucose cannot be absorbed by the body without insulin cells, the level of blood glucose gradually increases. As this condition is mainly seen in children, the disease is often known as juvenile onset or insulin dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is also associated with heredity of the person. Even though it is considered as a genetic disorder, some people with heredity do not develop type 1 diabetes. Only 5-10% of diabetic patients are affected with this type of diabetes.
The fact is that around 85-90% of people with heredity of type 1 diabetes do not have the disease. In several cases, both parents have to be diabetic for their offspring to inherit the disease. According to some scientists, exposure to Coxsackievirus, which is an intestinal tract virus known for enterovirus infections, can cause this condition in children with genetic background. Even though the reason is not known, the child affected with enteric virus has the probability of developing type 1 diabetes six times more than other children with parents having diabetes.
Other risk factors that trigger the occurrence of type 1 diabetes are climate, ethnicity, childhood diet, respiratory infection, and autoantibodies. Caucasians are more susceptible to develop type 1 diabetes. Climate also plays a major role in the development of this condition. This condition is more common in winter season than in summer season. Breastfed children are less susceptible to this disease. Autoantibodies are found in type 1 diabetic patients several years before the occurrence of the disease. According to a research study, child who had respiratory infection during the first year will obtain protection from type 1 diabetes.
Signs and symptoms of type-1 diabetes include weight loss, feeling thirsty and urinating frequently and nausea.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes, also called adult onset diabetes, is a condition in which the body does not use the insulin effectively or the production of insulin is not enough to breakdown the body glucose. Gradually, the body loses its ability to produce insulin. This condition can be delayed or prevented by making lifestyle changes such as by maintaining healthy weight, proper diet and regular exercise. About 80-90% of diabetic patients are suffering from type 2 diabetes.
Hereditary factors play a major role in type 2 diabetes, unlike type 1. Environmental factors and lifestyle also trigger the development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is considered as the strongest factor to develop type 2 diabetes. About 80% of the people suffering from type 2 diabetes are overweight. Inactivity, psychological stress, social problems, and lifestyle changes are also associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Ethnicity and geographical conditions also trigger the development of type 2 diabetes. African Americans, Pima Indians and Hispanics are the groups that are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The condition is more common in older people or people over 40 years of age. Type 2 diabetes is not very common in non-westernized countries.
It’s signs include weight loss and also weight gain (obesity) in addition to the other signs in type-1 diabetes. However, there are more warning signs of type-2 diabetes including skin infections, blurred vision and excessive itching.
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